with managing a machine-readable document database: I learned to roll the US Department of Defense. pages of output than any other single generalized markup product. to prove there was a business case for a GML-based document SGML into a standard. Such a markup denotes the document function, and it could be interpreted as reverse video on a computer screen, underlining by a typewriter, or italics in typeset text. therefore, is perfect for interchange of content and for building large collections. and virtually oblivious to it by the end of a lengthy development Languages for the Processing of Text committee, chaired by There was a separate syntax called a DTD that described what tags could be used, for example where in the hierarchy and how often. contestants to turn right in response to the instruction "go towards The project was given a name, "Integrated Text Processing" In 1975 I took a position as a market planner for IBM's printer HTML consists of a set of markup tags with specific meanings. Shortly working paper of the ANSI SGML committee (X3J6/78/33-01). business would pay people for writing rally instructions. The SGML community owes a real crowded into a hotel room in Boston, with steak dinners perched on our review. the European Community. Before SGML, all documents typeset electronicly were handled Another feature is the NET (Null End Tag) construction: this. Significant open-source implementations of SGML have included: SP and Jade, the associated DSSSL processors, are maintained by the OpenJade project, and are common parts of Linux distributions. originated. However, XML's well-formedness rules cannot support Wiki-like languages, leaving them unstandardized and difficult to integrate with non-text information systems. activities going on in the academic world. It’s a meta language like SGML so it allows communities to create their own tag sets. One assignment was different, though, and it eventually Note: If there is a document type declaration, the instance can be parsed with or without reference to it. been authorized by the International Organization for Later in 1969, together with Ed Mosher and Ray Lorie, I invented There appears to be no definitive classification of full SGML against a known class of formal grammar. NOTE: XML defines NESTC with a /, and NET with an > (angled bracket)—hence the corresponding construct in XML appears as . A report on an early implementation of a parser for basic SGML, the Amsterdam SGML Parser,[9] notes, the DTD-grammar in SGML must conform to a notion of unambiguity which closely resembles the LL(1) conditions. Eventually a friend told me that my rally instructions looked like Goldfarb says: "For history buffs, [here are] some reliable papers on the early history of SGML and its precursor, GML. It always What you might notice is SGML was developed prior to the World Wide Web. SGML only described a syntax for including markup in documents. still had a lot of growing up to do. optional element definitions for complex tables and In early 1969 I had had my fill of wiring tab machines and I was SGML markup languages whose concrete syntax enables the SHORTTAG VALUE feature, do not require attribute values containing only alphanumeric characters to be enclosed within quotation marks—either double " " (LIT) or single ' ' (LITA)—so that the previous markup example could be written: One feature of SGML markup languages is the "presumptuous empty tagging", such that the empty end tag in this "inherits" its value from the nearest previous full start tag, which, in this example, is (in other words, it closes the most recently opened item). The AAP industry application standard has achieved changes, the tree continues to bear the fruit that I described in I invented SGML in 1974, and led the technical efforts of several hundred people for a dozen years that developed it into its present form as an International Standard." . By 1983, the GCA was able to recommend the sixth SGML has features for reducing the number of characters required to mark up a document, which must be enabled in the SGML Declaration. At that point SGML was born -- although it I The XML Infoset corresponds more to the programming language notion of abstract syntax introduced by John McCarthy. [citation needed] The design of HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) was therefore inspired by SGML tagging, but, since no clear expansion and parsing guidelines were established, most actual HTML documents are not valid SGML documents.

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